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== New here? ==
 
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Feel free to sign up for an account and contribute to the explain xkcd wiki!  We need explanations for comics, characters, themes, memes and everything in between.  If it is referenced in an [http://www.xkcd.com xkcd] web comic, it should be here.
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You can read a brief introduction about this wiki at [[explain xkcd]]. Feel free to sign up for an account and contribute to the wiki!  We need explanations for comics, characters, themes, memes and everything in between.  If it is referenced in an [[xkcd]] web comic, it should be here.
  
 
* If you're new to wikis like this, take a look at these help pages describing [[mw:Help:Navigation|how to navigate]] the wiki, and [[mw:Help:Editing pages|how to edit]] pages.
 
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* [[List of all comics]] contains a complete table of all xkcd comics so far and the corresponding explanations. The red links ([[like this]]) are missing explanations. Feel free to help out by creating them! [[Help:How to add a new comic explanation|Here's how]].
  
 
== Rules ==
 
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Don't be a jerk. There are a lot of comics that don't have set in stone explanations; feel free to put multiple interpretations in the wiki page for each comic.
  
 
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Revision as of 05:35, 4 March 2013

Welcome to the explain xkcd wiki!

We have collaboratively explained Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",". xkcd comics, and only Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",". (Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",".%) remain. Add yours while there's a chance!

Latest comic

Go to this comic explanation

P-Values
If all else fails, use "signifcant at a p>0.05 level" and hope no one notices.
Title text: If all else fails, use "signifcant at a p>0.05 level" and hope no one notices.

Explanation

Ambox notice.png This explanation may be incomplete or incorrect: First draft.

This comic plays on how is the significance of scientific experiments measured and interpreted. The p-value is output of statistical analysis of experiment results compared to the values predicted by hypothesis tested by the experiment. The low p-values occur when the experiment output data fit well with predicted output whereas the high p-values point out no relation between the hypothesis and the real world. The p-value calculated from the experiment data is used to interpret whether the experiment was significant and supports the hypothesis.

The significance threshold (usually 0.05) should be set prior the experiment in order to avoid ex-post changes in order to get a better experiment report. A simple change of this threshold (e.g. from 0.05 to 0.1) can change the experiment result with p-value=0.06 from "barely significant" to "significant".

The highest p-value at which most studies typically draw significance is p<0.05, which is why all p-values in the comic below that number are marked at least significant. 0.050 is labeled "Oh crap. Redo calculations," because the p-value is very close to being considered significant, but isn't. Redoing the calculations may result in a different answer, but it is not guaranteed that it will be lower than 0.050. Values that are higher than 0.050 and lower than .1 are considered to be suggesting significance without actually supporting it, which will likely support additional trials.

The title text suggests that, if the results cannot be normally considered significant, to invert p<0.050, making it p>0.050. This is intended to fool casual readers, as the change is only to the inequality sign, which may go unnoticed. Notice that there is another mistake in the title text, specifically the word "significant" is misspelled as "signifcant". This is quite possibly not an author's error and rather another comical pun that further supports the "hope no one notices" theme featured in the same sentence.

Transcript

Ambox notice.png This explanation may be incomplete or incorrect: First draft.

There are two columns in a T-table labelled "p-value" and "interpretation". The interpretation column selects various areas of the P-value column.

P-values
P-value Interpretation
0.001 Highly significant
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04 Significant
0.049
0.050 Oh crap. Redo calculations.
0.051 On the edge of significance
0.06
0.07 Highly suggestive, relevant at the p<0.10 level
0.08
0.09
0.099
≥0.1 Hey, look at this interesting subgroup analysis



Is this out of date? Clicking here will fix that.

New here?

You can read a brief introduction about this wiki at explain xkcd. Feel free to sign up for an account and contribute to the wiki! We need explanations for comics, characters, themes, memes and everything in between. If it is referenced in an xkcd web comic, it should be here.

  • List of all comics contains a complete table of all xkcd comics so far and the corresponding explanations. The red links (like this) are missing explanations. Feel free to help out by creating them! Here's how.

Rules

Don't be a jerk. There are a lot of comics that don't have set in stone explanations; feel free to put multiple interpretations in the wiki page for each comic.

If you want to talk about a specific comic, use its discussion page.

Please only submit material directly related to —and helping everyone better understand— xkcd... and of course only submit material that can legally be posted (and freely edited.) Off-topic or other inappropriate content is subject to removal or modification at admin discretion, and users who repeatedly post such content will be blocked.

If you need assistance from an admin, feel free to leave a message on their personal discussion page. The list of admins is here.

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